Stem cells news

Neuropathy

Treating Neuropathy Ulcers with Stem Cells

Introduction Peripheral neuropathy is a condition that most commonly occurs in diabetic patients. It is characterized by tingling, numbness, or even pain. These symptoms are especially common in the hands and feet. A dreaded complication of peripheral neuropathy is ulcers. Neuropathy ulcers are especially hard to treat. Stem cells may offer a new solution for many such patients. The Formation of Ulcers As stated above, neuropathy ulcers often occur in diabetic patients. Both types of Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Types I and II, can cause microvascular and nerve damage over time. These changes interfere with how the body heals itself in addition to how the body maintains peripheral nerves. Common symptoms of peripheral neuropathy include paresthesia, numbness, and loss of sensation. Loss of sensation is especially dangerous. Without sensation, people can get injuries without realizing it. Common injuries include fractures, cuts, and stress ulcers. Stress ulcers occur from repeated stress on

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Critical Limb Ischemia

Stem Cell Therapy Can Treat Critical Limb Ischemia

Critical Limb Ischemia otherwise referred to as CLI, is a very serious condition. A serious consequence of peripheral arterial disease, CLI can cause chronic pain and wounds that could eventually require amputation. CLI can be difficult to treat – only half of the people diagnosed are eligible for revascularization at the time of diagnosis. This leaves a wide swath of people with few options. Fortunately, stem cell therapy is a viable option for many people. At the Stem Cell Transplant Institute, we use stem cell therapy to treat CLI and its consequences. Risk Factors Associated with CLI CLI and Peripheral Arterial Disease are related to cardiovascular disease. This means that the same things that cause cardiovascular disease also cause CLI. Risk factors include age, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle. Certain lifestyle choices, such as smoking and a poor diet, can also lead to CLI. Specific diseases associated with CLI include

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Stem cells

Mutations in Stem Cell Transplants

Introduction Stem cell transplants are an important part of healthcare. Physicians and researchers use them to treat many different conditions, like autoimmune diseases, cancers, blood disorders, and many other diseases. A new study raises the possibility that stem cell donors are passing along mutations to recipients. This may have long-standing implications for different recipients. Stem Cell Uses Overview Stem cells are a naturally occurring cell in the body that can turn into many different other types of cell lines. Stem cells can be used for aging, diseases of the nervous system, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, cancer, and many more conditions. They are particularly valuable in these diseases because, in addition to becoming any type of cell, they also have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. A person can receive cell lines from someone else or they can have their own stem cells removed, cultivated, and returned back into their vessels. Harvesting stem

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Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis Stem Cell Trials vs. Best Current Medication

Introduction Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects 2.3 million people worldwide. Current treatment is expensive and limited, but new research is being done every day. One promising trial sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) compares stem cell experimental therapies to current treatments. Multiple Sclerosis Overview Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system. This means that the body attacks its own nervous cells, causing them to degenerate. It affects women more than men, Caucasian people more than other races, and people in hotter climates than colder climates. Symptoms include motor and sensory disturbances like blurred vision, difficulty walking, numbness and tingling, bowel and bladder issues, and mental changes. MS comes in 3 varieties: relapsing-remitting, secondary-progressive, and primary- progressive. In relapsing-remitting, the symptoms may appear for weeks or months and then resolve, repeating this pattern. Primary-progressive is when the

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Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis Overview

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that affects many people in different ways. Its cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are all complicated. Scientists believe the disease is caused by a variety of factors. To understand the best diagnosis and treatment is important to understand the cause and symptoms of the disease. What is Multiple Sclerosis and what causes it? Multiple sclerosis, otherwise known as MS, is a chronic, degenerative immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Scientists are not entirely sure of the exact cause. It is characterized by the inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degeneration of the central nervous system. The prevailing theory is that some trigger activates T-lymphocytes, an important cell type in the immune system. This then activates inflammatory processes, causing demyelination of some axons. This then results in the loss of axons, scarring, and inadequate healing of the central nervous system. While they are not certain

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Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis Causes

For many patients, multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that they live with but of which they understand very little. It is a chronic disease that has a variety of symptoms that are unique to the individual. The exact origin is not well understood, but scientists believe the disease is caused by a variety of factors. New research into the subject has revealed new insights into the cause, such as location, vitamins, and microbiota. Health professionals hope that this new insight will help find new avenues of treatment. Multiple Sclerosis Overview Multiple sclerosis, otherwise known as MS, is a chronic, degenerative immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is characterized by the inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degeneration of the CNS. Women are twice as commonly affected as men, most often between the ages of 20 to 40 years old. People in warmer climates are more likely to

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Autism

Autism Spectrum Disorder and Nutrition

Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder that encompasses many previously delineated disorders. It is characterized by a deficit in social interaction, communication, and repetitive stereotyped behavior, interest, and activities. For some patients, diagnosis is made early. For others, diagnosis is difficult. Treatment is based on the individual. Some more recent research focuses on the microbiome and nutrition might point towards innovative treatment options. Autism Spectrum Disorder Causes and Symptoms Autism, as stated above, is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which people have difficulties processing social interactions and communications. The exact cause is unknown, but scientists believe it is partially genetic and partially due to environmental factors. Symptoms are different based on each person. However, hallmarks include impaired social interaction and repetitive stereotyped behavior or interest. Social impairment includes reduced eye contact, reduced language skills, difficulty communicating, and difficulty understanding and communicating emotions. Stereotyped, repetitive behavior includes things like hand-wringing, clapping,

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Autism

Autism Spectrum Disorder Diets

Many people with many different medical conditions have gastrointestinal symptoms. One condition that people may not associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). ASD is a developmental disorder that encompasses a deficit in social interaction, communication, and repetitive stereotyped behavior, interest, and activities. Standard treatment is a broad-based strategy. New evidence shows that certain diets may help improve some of the GI symptoms found in ASD patients. Autism Spectrum Disorder Overview Autism, as stated above, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties processing social interactions and communication. Scientists believe it is partly genetic in nature and partly caused by environmental factors. There are inflammatory and immune factors that are associated with individuals with autism but have not been named necessarily as the cause. Every person with ASD is unique since it is a spectrum disorder. As a spectrum disorder, people can have varying severity of symptoms. They

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Autism

Genetics of Autism

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complicated condition with an unknown cause and no definitive treatment. Scientists believe that ASD is in part genetically inherited in addition to environmental factors. In fact, hundreds of gene variants have been linked to autism, but their consequences are highly variable and some are related to other syndromes. New advancements in genetics research suggests that there may genetic causes that physicians are able to target now. What is autism? Autism is a disorder that is characterized by difficulty with social interaction, emotional processing, and sensory processing. As a spectrum disorder, some patients are high- functioning, meaning they may only have mild symptoms, while others are severely affected and have difficulty participating in everyday life with neurotypical people. What have recent advances been? In the past 50 years since ASD has been researched, many new technological and scientific advances have been made. New technology in

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Autism

Symptoms and Challenges of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism is a spectrum disorder, meaning that it can present with a variety of symptoms with varying severity. Every person is different, which can present some challenges with treatment. What is Autism? Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a disorder in which people have difficulty processing sensory input and social interactions. Many syndromes and disorders that used to be classified as separate now belong to ASD. These include autistic disorder, Asperger, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. Scientists have not found the exact cause of ASD. They believe it is in part genetic, but they also believe that it is related to some environmental factors. For example, there is some evidence that autism is related to immune system activation and inflammatory processes in the mother during pregnancy. What are the symptoms of ASD? ASD can present with a variety of symptoms. As stated above, it normally encompasses difficulties

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Autism

The Use of Stem Cells in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a condition that describes difficulty with sensory processing and social interaction. It can be directly related to another medical disorder or have no clear cause. With no clear cause, there is also no clear treatment. Scientists have been researching stem cells, how they can be used to model the disorder, and how they may be used to treat the disorder. What is ASD? ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder categorized by difficulty with sensory processing and social interaction. As a spectrum disorder, patients can present very differently. Scientists are not certain as to the exact cause. However, they believe it is in part environmental and in part genetic. Without an exact cause, researchers have had difficulty finding an exact solution. Currently, most treatments involve behavioral therapy. Some scientist believe that stem cells may be a part of the next solution. What are stem cells? Stem cells

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Autism

Alternative Therapies in Autism

Autism is a spectrum disorder, the symptoms of which include persistent impairment in communication and social interactions in addition to stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. This disorder encompasses what once used to be many different disorders. Just like there is no one particular cause, there is no one particular treatment. Many people have created different alternative treatments that many people with ASD have found to be effective. What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a disorder the includes a wide variety of symptoms. People with ASD have difficulties with communication and social interaction in addition to repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. Typically, people with ASD may have issues forming relationships and behaving in a socially expected manner. They may also have stereotyped behaviors, like hand flapping or wrist wringing. They may also have interests in specific activities or topics. Some people with ASD have

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Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus

When most people think of diabetes, they think of Diabetes Mellitus. Millions of people are affected by Diabetes Mellitus (DM). DM affects multiple organ systems, and, untreated, has many consequences. The focus of the medical community has been both prevention and treatment. New, innovative, treatment options are in the development stage. What is diabetes mellitus? There are multiple times of diabetes. The word ‘diabetes’ comes from Ancient Greek. It means “to pass through” or “siphon.” There is Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder of the pancreas and insulin. Both types of Diabetes Mellitus are an issue of too much sugar, called glucose, in the blood. Mellitus means “sweet”. Supposedly, Chinese and Japanese physicians noticed that the urine of people with Diabetes Mellitus was sweet because of the extra sugar in their blood, and therefore named the condition Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes

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Diabetes

Diabetes Mellitus Treatment Options

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a disease that affects millions of people. Both types of diabetes, Type I and Type II, cause elevated levels of blood sugar. However, the causes of both are different, and therefore the treatments are different. Despite multiple treatment options, DM can be difficult to treat. There is new research trying to find innovative options for patients suffering from uncontrolled diabetes. What are the consequences of untreated diabetes? Untreated DM can be devastating. The elevated blood sugar, called glucose, can put patients at higher risk for infections. These infections can affect the lungs, skin, teeth, and genitourinary system, to name a few. They also increase the risk for infection when undergoing any type of procedure, like dental procedure or other surgery. DM can also cause cardiovascular issues. People with Type II Diabetes Mellitus (DMII) are more likely to have a heart attack or stroke. People with both

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COPD

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, also known as COPD, is a very common diagnosis after the era of tobacco smoking. It is a preventable disease that causes difficulty breathing due to airway inflammation. Patients’ lives are disrupted by COPD, and there is no real cure. New research is being done into alternative therapies, but there is still yet work to be done. What is COPD? COPD is a chronic lung disease caused almost entirely by inhaling toxins. There is a small subset of COPD that is genetic, but the majority of cases are caused by smoking tobacco products (90%) or inhaling toxins, like pollution. The toxins cause inflammation to different parts of the airway, interfering with the exchange of oxygen and CO2. The bronchi, or pipes of the lung, become narrower. The alveoli, or small bags at the ends of the pipes that are responsible for exchanging oxygen and CO2, become

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Autism

Autism and Nerve Cells

Autism, a disorder that involves impairment in social interactions and communication, affects millions of people, and the number is growing. The cause of autism is still unknown, and therefore its treatment is unknown. However, new discoveries in science are illuminating how the brains of people with autism are different than neurotypical brains. New research has found that neurons in people with autism are different from others’ neurons. Autism Overview Autism, as stated above, is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which people process social interactions and communications differently. While the cause is unknown, this disorder is highly inheritable. Symptoms include reduced eye contact, reduced language skills, difficulty communicating, and difficulty understanding and communicating emotions. People with autism often have stereotyped, repetitive behavior, like hand-wringing. One of the most difficult aspects of researching autism is how variable its course is. In some people, the differences are obvious. In others, they are more subtle.

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Lupus

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Introduction Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. The exact cause is still unknown, and the severity can vary person-to-person. Because the cause is still unknown, treatment is still difficult. Research is ongoing to develop better treatment options. What is SLE? SLE is an autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems. While the exact cause is still unknown, scientists believe it is related to genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors. In particular, the genes HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3 are commonly present in people with SLE. Certain proteins, like C1q, C2, and C4 are also deficient in 10% of people with SLE. Scientists have found that certain hormones increase the likelihood of developing SLE. People with more estrogen due to oral contraceptive use, postmenopausal hormonal replacement therapy, and endometriosis have an increased risk of SLE. Lastly, environmental factors may play a role in developing this condition. UV light, bacterial and viral infections,

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Lupus

Stem Cell Therapies for Lupus

Introduction Lupus, formally known as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), is an autoimmune disease. The exact cause is unknown, and current treatments vary in regards to success. Current research is ongoing to determine the best treatment options. Stem cells have shown some promise in their early stages. The research is still in its beginning stages, and more research is needed to shed more light on the issue. What is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? SLE is an autoimmune disorder, more commonly known as lupus. It can affect multiple organ systems and varies person-to-person. While the exact cause is unknown, it is believed that SLE is an autoimmune disorder that causes the body’s immune system to attack other parts of the body. It can manifest with skin changes, kidney problems, heart issues, and generalized symptoms like fatigue and fevers. What are the current mainstay treatments? Currently, treatment is aimed at suppressing the immune system

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Rotator Cuff

Rotator Cuff Injuries and Stem Cell Transplants

Introduction The rotator cuff is one of the most important musculoskeletal regions because it stabilizes the shoulder joint. The shoulder is prone to injury, which can occur either suddenly or over time. Many people with rotator cuff injuries are restricted from doing activities they used to. The treatments are variable, ranging from conservative pain management to a full-blown reconstruction. There is new evidence that stem cells may be useful in managing rotator cuff injuries. What is the rotator cuff and how can it be injured? The rotator cuff is made up of the tendons of 4 muscles: the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. These muscles insert on the humerus and stabilize shoulder motion. A rotator cuff injury occurs either suddenly or over time. People with injuries describe one- sided shoulder pain that is worse with sleeping on that side or reaching overhead. Their range of motion is limited. In

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Rotator Cuff

Rotator Cuff Injuries

Introduction The rotator cuff is one of the most important stabilizing musculoskeletal regions. Because it is responsible for stabilizing the shoulder joint, it gets a lot of use, which can lead to injury. Those Rotator cuff tears vary in severity, from a mild inconvenience to a debilitating injury. The treatments vary with the severity, and there is new research suggesting that stem cell therapy may be very useful. What is the rotator cuff? The rotator cuff is made up of the tendons of 4 muscles. Those muscles are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. These muscles insert on the humerus, the upper bone of the arm. They stabilize shoulder motion. An injury is defined as either an issue in one of the tendons or a tear in the muscles. The tear can be partial or full, meaning it goes all the way through. What risk factors increase the risk

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Myocardial Infarction

Hypertension and Heart Attacks

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, can cause lasting damage. Most people do not realize how serious this condition may be. It can cause strokes or heart attacks. While there are stem cell therapies that may be useful to treat strokes or heart attacks, the most important intervention is prevention. What is high blood pressure? Hypertension is when the force of blood running through your arteries is too high. It can cause lasting damage to the walls of these vessels. Over time, this damage can change how blood flows to organs and therefore cause damage to the organs themselves. What causes High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure can be caused by many different things. It is divided into 2 categories: primary hypertension, and secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is caused by another medical condition. For example, certain kidney conditions could cause secondary hypertension. Primary hypertension is more common. It is

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Osteoarthritis

Common Knee Injuries and Osteoarthritis

As people get older, one of their biggest complaints is aching joints, particularly their knees. Painful knees making walking difficult and can severely limit a person’s mobility. One cause of joint pain is arthritis. There are some ways to prevent arthritis, but first it is important to understand how it develops. What is the anatomy of the knee? It is important to understand the anatomy of the knee in order to understand its function and its dysfunction. The knee is one of the major joints of the body. It is called a joint because it is where two major bones join: the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone). The ends of the bones are covered in cartilage. This cartilage acts as a buffer and makes the two bones slip against each other. Without the cartilage, the bones would grind. Beyond the cartilage, there are other important measures to

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ALS

ALS: Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatments in Rodents

What is ALS? Many people have heard of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as ALS. It is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects strength and movement. ALS affects the neurons connect our brain to the rest of our body and control movement. In ALS, the neurons break down. While it can be genetic 10% of the time, 90% of the time it is spontaneous. The exact cause of the disease is unknown, which makes it difficult to treat.  What are the treatment options? Treatment normally includes includes physical therapy, speech therapy, social work, nursing, and other resources. There is only one medication that is formally approved to treat ALS, called Riluzole. Riluzole has been shown to slow the progression of ALS. It is neuroprotective, meaning it protects the neurons that are still there, and reduces the spasmodic qualities of the muscles affected by ALS. Research is being done on new

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What is ALS - Stem Cells Treatment
ALS

What is ALS?

Many people have heard of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as ALS. This disease was originally made famous by Lou Gehrig, and more recently by the Ice Bucket Challenge. It is a neurodegenerative disease that affects strength and movement. Our movement is controlled by neurons. Neurons connect our brain to the rest of our body. In ALS, the neurons break down.  This can be caused by genetics, but it is much more often spontaneous. The exact cause of the disease is unknown, which makes it difficult to treat. What are the early symptoms? Everyone experiences ALS differently, especially when the disease first presents. It most often presents itself in people that are 50-70 years old, more commonly in men than women. People most often experience weakness in their hands in feet. Because ALS affects neurons in both the brain and the limbs, it can cause a mix of weakness. Some

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multiple sclerosis stem cells treatment in costa rica
Multiple Sclerosis

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplants in Multiple Sclerosis

The Nervous System The body is filled with billions of nerves. Some of them travel from the brain, to muscles and skin, and then back again to the brain. Some of the nerves are covered in a myelin sheath. Myelin is a mixture of proteins and other compounds. It forms a kind of insulation around the nerve. This causes the information conducted through the nerves to travel faster. Without a myelin sheath, the information travels very slowly, or not at all. This can result in changes in vision, difficulty moving, weakness, or numbness. What is Multiple Sclerosis? Multiple Sclerosis, also known as MS, is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease. The exact cause is not confirmed, but the prevailing theory is that one’s immune cells become activated for an unknown reason, begin attacking the myelin sheath, and eventually form scar tissue in the nervous system. This occurs most commonly in the brain

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Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Stem cells

Researchers Review the “Biological Properties and Therapeutic Potential” of Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)

Researchers from Italy conducted a literature review of 83 articles about the biological properties and therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wharton’s Jelly of the human umbilical cord, and published the key learnings in 2019 in the International Journal of Stem Cells.1 The following is a summary of their findings. You can access the full article at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6657936/ Studies indicated WJ-MSCs could be used to treat:1-7 Neurological disorders Kidney injury Lung injury Orthopedic injury Liver injury Certain cancers The Following Properties Make WJ-MSCs Optimal Candidates for Allogenic Transplant1 WJ-MSCs have potent regenerative and immunomodulatory capabilities WJ-MSCs are capable of immune suppression and immune avoidance WJ-MSCs express very low levels of Human Leukocyte Antigen class I and zero expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen DR WJ-MSCs induce expansion of regulatory T cells and in vitro, do not generate immune responses from regulatory T cells WJ-MSCs produce tolerogenic Interluekin-10 and Transforming

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Stem cells

Is Michael Schumacher Receiving Stem Cell Treatment?

The French daily newspaper, Le Parisien, reported the Formula One legend, Michael Schumacher is receiving stem cell therapy at the Georges-Pompidou Hospital in Paris, France. Michael Schumacher suffered a traumatic brain injury after a devastating ski accident six years ago. Michael Schumacher, a retired German racing driver, is a seven-time Formula One champion, Ferrari’s most successful Formula One driver, and considered by many to be the greatest Formula One racer of all time. On December 29, 2013, Schumacher was skiing in the French Alps with his son when he sustained a traumatic brain injury after hitting his head on a rock. Following his injury, he underwent two surgeries and was put into a medically induced coma. Since 2014 he has been undergoing rehabilitation at his private residence. It has been reported that he is paralyzed and has difficulty communicating, but is slowly improving. What is Stem Cell Therapy? Stem cell

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Stem Cells for Cerebral Artery Ischemic Stroke
Stem cells

Clinical Trial Shows Human Umbilical Cord Blood to be Safe for the Treatment of Cerebral Artery Ischemic Stroke

A hallmark clinical study by physicians at Duke University and the University of Texas, published in Stem Cells Translational Medicine in 2018, showed IV infusion of human umbilical cord stem cells to be safe for the treatment of Cerebral Artery Ischemic Stroke.1 More than 85% of all strokes are ischemic strokes. Ischemic stroke is one of three types of stroke and occurs when the artery that supplies blood to the brain is blocked, reducing blood flow and oxygen to the brain. If blood circulation is not restored quickly, permanent brain damage occurs. Ischemic stroke can cause death or long-term disability and the only approved treatment is tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). TPA breaks up clots but to be effective it must be given within four hours from the start of the stroke and cannot be given after five hours. Additionally, it cannot be given to individuals with a history of hemorrhagic

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Cardiovascular

The Benefits of Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Cardiovascular and Neurodegenerative Disease

Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that have the ability to differentiate, or become, a variety of cell types, including bone cells, cartilage cells, fat cells, and muscle cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal for treating many kinds of injuries and disease, and can be derived from many different kinds of tissue including; bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood and cord tissue. Studies have been conducted using MSC derived from each of the different types of tissue and there is a lot of debate about what type of MSC is best for the treatment of different conditions. Most research has been conducted with MSCs derived from bone marrow and these cells have become the “gold standard” when discussing stem cell therapy. However, researchers are learning more everyday about the different properties of MSCs depending on what type of tissue they are derived from and there are many factors

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Antibiotics May Increase the Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis by 60%

Previous research has suggested that antibiotics may increase the risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune liver disease, so researchers decided to asses if antibiotic use is associated with the onset of rheumatoid arthritis.1 Microbiota or bacteria, live in various parts of the human body including the skin (skin microbiota), the mouth (oral microbiota) and the intestinal tract (gut microbiota). Our intestines contain tens of trillions of microorganisms including more than 1000 different types of bacteria. These microorganisms play and integral part in keeping our metabolism and immune system functioning at its peak. Antibiotic usage can lead to a significant reduction in the type of microbial in our gut and the overall total number of microbials in our gut, directly impacting our metabolism and immune system. Study Results To evaluate if antibiotic use was associated with the development of rheumatoid arthritis

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