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Cardiovascular disease can be separated into two broad categories, based on the presence or absence of ischemia (inadequate blood supply) as a causative factor. In both ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease, myocardial

dysfunction or damage frequently results in the development of heart failure, characterized by dyspnea, fatigue and reduced survival.

Cardiovascular disease can be separated into two broad categories, based on the presence or absence of ischemia (inadequate blood supply) as a causative factor. In both ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease, myocardial dysfunction or damage frequently results in the development of heart failure, characterized by dyspnea, fatigue and reduced survival.

Cardiovascular disease continues to represent a significant and growing source of morbidity and mortality despite advances in traditional treatments.

Treatment with drugs and revascularization has reduced the mortality significantly, but it is still the most common cause of death and a major cause of hospital admissions in industrialized countries. As one of the least regenerative organs in the human body, current standards of care are limited to mitigating loss and preventing recurrence of damage, rather than stimulating actual regeneration of functional heart tissue.

The existence of cardiac stem cells that reside in the heart itself was demonstrated, this discovery has sparked intense hope for myocardial regeneration with cells that are obtained from the heart itself and are programmed to reconstitute cardiac tissue.

Transplantation of vascular cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells mobilized endogenous stem cells into the damaged zone, attenuated regional wall stress, stimulated neovascularization, and improved blood flow, which in turn resulted in marked increases in contractile function.

Treatment with stem cells with the potential to regenerate the damaged myocardium is a current approach. Stem cells therapy for cardiac regeneration in patients with acute or chronic ischemic heart disease has been under study with awesome results.

Investigations revealed an improvement of peripheral arterial disease by using endothelial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, stem cells increase capillary density and improve perfusion.

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